Introduction to Biodiversity:
Various species have been found on the earth that are fulfilling the needs of each other and themselves. There should be a balance in all species including humans, animals, etc on the earth, and this is called biodiversity. As soon as the environment becomes hostile, the ecological cycle starts to interfere. The crisis starts with animals and plants. This is the reason why many bio-species have become extinct in the present world and many are endangered.
Types of Biodiversity:
Biodiversity is divided into three categories based on genetic, functional:
(i) Genetic Diversity
(ii) Racial Diversity
(iii) Ecological Diversity
(i) Genetic diversity:
The difference between organisms and plants is based on the genetic basis which is based on the many coordinates of ‘genes’ and they are identified as each human is different from the other. This genetic diversity is essential for the healthy development of species. If the nature of the heredity changes or the ‘gene’ form deteriorates, then there are many malformations, and that species can also be lost. At present, new varieties of seeds, disease-free plants, and improved animals are being developed that are the result of genetic research.
(ii) Ethnic diversity:
The number of animals and plants in an area is the species diversity there. This diversity occurs in both natural ecosystems and agricultural ecosystems. Some areas are rich in it, such as the warm forested area, on the other hand, there are only a few species in a forest area.
At present, the intensive agricultural system consists of relatively few species while the traditional agricultural ecosystem is more diversified. The diversity found between different castes of a dynasty is the caste biodiversity and the variation between the species of one subdivision in an area is the biodiversity at the caste level.
(iii) Ecological Diversity:
There are different types of ecological systems on earth which are habitat for different types of species. A geographical area may have diverse ecological systems, such as mountains, grasslands, forests, deserts, etc., and aquifers such as rivers, lakes, ponds, oceans, etc. This diversity develops different types of life which vary from one system to another, this variation is called ecological variation.
Generally, the importance of biodiversity is in the following forms:
(i) Consumption Importance:
The direct use of biodiversity is for wood, animal base, fruits, flowers, etc. Timber and vegetation have always been used for fuel, although its commercialization also causes destruction.
(ii) Productive Importance:
Presently, bio technicians and scientists have started developing new plants based on heredity. The development of high productivity agricultural seeds and the development of plants with disease response potential are revolutionizing agriculture. With the advancement in medicine, many medicinal plants are being used to make medicines.
(iii) Social importance:
Biodiversity is also important socially. Even today, many castes and communities in the world live in harmony with the natural environment and use biodiversity for their limited needs in such a way that they are not harmed. In many areas, biodiversity is protected by traditional communities only. Their cultural and religious sentiments are also associated with this.
(iv) Ethical importance:
The importance of human moral values is in preserving biodiversity is also important. There is a message of protection of the living world in all religious texts and it is believed that every creature has an importance on earth and has the right to live.
(v) Harmonic importance:
Nature has always been straightforward and biodiversity plays an important role in this beauty. Areas covered with forests, flower-laden trees, mountains and valley sites or seaside areas, desert regions, or lake areas all have biodiversity there. Wildlife sanctuaries, bird areas, and special plant regions attract all. National parks, bird sanctuaries, sites of special animals, or areas of sea creatures all have their beauty. For this reason, regions with biodiversity are the center of tourist attractions.
(vi) Ecological importance:
The ecological system is operated by different species, in which one organism depends on another. Due to the destruction of one species, other organisms are also threatened. For example, a tree has not only economic importance but also depends on it the habitat of many birds and micro-organisms and it is also important for soil and water. Every plant and organism involved as a producer, consumer, and decomposer has ecological importance.
(vii). Global Biodiversity:
There is immense biodiversity in the world. In this regard, biologists have made many hypotheses and there are substantial differences among them. Based on general estimates, there are 17.5 lakh species described in the world, there may be many more. Birds, mammals, fish, plant species are more described while less of microbes, bacteria, fungus, etc. Most biodiversity estimates are based on research conducted in tropical rain-fed forests. There are many areas in the world where large biodiversity can be seen. These types of regions are called ‘large biodiversity zones’.
Biodiversity degradation / crisis on biodiversity -
It is a well-known fact that biodiversity is threatened and due to its continuous erosion, there has been a deletion. According to the World Conservation and control center, about 88,000 plants and 2000 animal species are facing this threat. Thus caries is mostly by human actions. Some scientists think that approximately 4000 species are ending every year. Instead of going to the truth of their data, it is necessary to see how to preserve them. In this context, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, in 1974 and 1977, divided the species into three categories in terms of biodiversity.